This is part 4 of the series on Life of a Packet in Kubernetes we’ll be tackling Kubernetes’s Ingress resource and Ingress controller. An Ingress Controller is a controller that watches the Kubernetes API server for updates to the Ingress resource and reconfigures the Ingress load balancer accordingly.

Nginx Controller and LoadBalancer/Proxy

An ingress controller is usually an application that runs as a pod in a Kubernetes cluster and configures a load balancer according to Ingress Resources. The load balancer can be a software load balancer running in the cluster or hardware or cloud load balancer running externally. …


As infrastructure becomes more integrated into services for companies large and small, it also becomes more complex. This is particularly true for telcos such as AT&T, which is why the company founded the Airship project to help cleanly manage infrastructure. Airship is a collection of loosely coupled but interoperable open source tools that declaratively automate cloud provisioning.

This series will explore how this brand-new open source project works to streamline the deployment of tools such as OpenStack and Kubernetes. Airship 1.0 …


This is part 3 of the series on Life of a Packet in Kubernetes. We’ll be tackling how Kubernetes’s kube-proxy component uses iptables to control the traffic. It’s important to know the role of kube-proxy in Kubernetes environment and how it uses iptables to control the traffic.

Note: There are many other plugins/tools to control the traffic flow, but in this article will look at the kube-proxy + iptables combo.

We’ll start with various communication models provided by Kubernetes and their implementation. …


As we discussed in Part 1, CNI plugins play an essential role in Kubernetes networking. There are many third-party CNI plugins available today; Calico is one of them. Many engineers prefer Calico; one of the main reasons is its ease of use and how it shapes the network fabric.

Calico supports a broad range of platforms, including Kubernetes, OpenShift, Docker EE, OpenStack, and bare metal services. The Calico node runs in a Docker container on the Kubernetes master node and on each Kubernetes worker node in the cluster. …


Kubernetes cluster networking can be more than a bit confusing, even for engineers with hands-on experience working with virtual networks and request routing. This article will help to understand the fundamental Kubernetes networking. The initial plan was to deep dive into Kubernetes networking’s complexities by following the journey of an HTTP request to a service running on a Kubernetes cluster. However, the life of a packet will not be complete without namespaces, CNI, and calico. We will start with Linux networking and cover other topics later.

This article is already too long, therefore divided the topics into several parts to…


The Single Root I/O Virtualization (SR-IOV) specification is a standard for a type of PCI device assignment that can share a single device with multiple pods. SR-IOV enables you to segment a compliant network device, recognized on the host node as a physical function (PF), into multiple virtual functions (VFs), and make them available for direct IO to the POD.

You can use SR-IOV network devices with additional networks on your Kubernetes cluster for applications that require high bandwidth or low latency.

In this article, we will talk about how to set up the POD to use SR-IOV VF by…

Dinesh Kumar Ramasamy

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